Rabindranath Tagore develop an early love for literature, and had begun The theme of the play Chandalika is the realization by a chandal girl that she is a. Chandalika Rabindranath Tagore was a poet, novelist, shortstory writer and dramatist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in Tagore’s interest. TAGORE’S DANCE DRAMA CHANDILIKA Based on a Buddhist tale ‘Chandalika’ was published in the form of a dance drama in and was for the first time.
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So, while drama entertains it also teaches and informs. This powerful attribute of drama has been employed by playwrights over the ages to make constructive commentaries on the happenings in society and thus affect some positive changes in man and his environment. The geneses of Indian drama is traced to Sanskrit literature. Bharata ascribed a divine origin to drama and considered it as the fifth Veda.
Its origin seems to be from religious dancing. According to Bharata, the drama uses eight basic emotions of love, joy, anger, rabindraath, pride, fear, aversion and wonder attempting to resolve them in the ninth holistic feeling of peace. Bhasa is the tagode known Indian dramatist. His masterpieces — Urubhanga and Dutavakya and Karna are known for their intensity and dramatic style.
The supreme achievement of Indian drama is undoubtedly Kalidasa, who is often called the Shakespeare of India. He has given the world profound spiritual vision of life. After the Sanskrit drama ceased to be acted and was read only as literature, theatre of the people flourished for many centuries and catered to the Indian masses.
Summary of the ‘Chandalika’ by Rabindranath Tagore
These dramas lacked the old splendor and fullness of drama. It was only after the British set up their regime in India that the crippled Indian drama received new strength chandapika witnessed a revival. The pre — independence era saw some stalwarts like Rabindranath Tagore, Sir Aurobindo, Harindranath Chattopadhyaya and Bharati Sarahi, who contributed substantially to the growth and development of Indian English drama.
Rabindranath Tagore, the winner of nobel prize for literature, is the first great Indian writer tagofe creative endeavors — poetry, prose, drama — present a superb Triveni of Philosophy, Mysticism, and Humanism. Tagore is considered as an important person chxndalika Bengali theatre and Bengali dramatic literature.
It is not possible to assign him a particular place chronologically, nor is it easy to label his plays with useful tags, or define their relationships with theatre. He wrote a large number of plays over a long period of time. Their variety in purpose, theme, structure, rabindranatth and treatment is astonishing. His plays and his ideas of theatre developed along lines differing from the general direction of Bengali drama and theatre.
ISSN 2250 – 3048
His non — conformism was more radical and consistent that rabbindranath him a fearless critic of social practices and religious beliefs such as denunciation of caste system, the world denying streak of ascetics, the role of priest, etc. Romantic nostalgia fails to allure him. The making of any artist owes to the cycle of his time, viz. Tagore is not an exception.
Tagore’s Chandalika as a social drama | gayathry ramesh –
Certain changes took place in the social sphere as a result of the increase in colonial exploitation by British imperialists. Religious and communal superstitions were reflected in the social life of the country due to lack of free relations with the progressive forces of the world.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy questioned the dogmas and social customs of the time. Social democratic thought developed in the second half of the nineteenth century. Tagore insisted chanadlika a feeling of national pride because he felt that ignorant and passive masses need to be awakened. Bengali literature tagors the second half of the nineteenth century, especially writings of Bakim Chandra, the activities of Ram Rxbindranath Roy and the national movement in the country.
Tagore having rwbindranath firm faith in the religion tried to establish that each individual is unique and retains his identity even when he attains union with godhead. Untouchability was a sore point with him. He felt that it was one of the darkest spots degrading humanity in the estimation of the civilized world and if not foiled it would remain an everlasting shame and agony.
He was guided by an integrated outlook that sought to achieve harmony and balance among the different elements that constitutes society.
There is a divine purpose behind the diversity of languages, religion, culture and caste. The discrimination in the society on the basis of caste has its roots in traditional social conventions, deep — rooted blind orthodoxy and the monopoly of ruling class over economic resources.
The chandalia in India are armed with the feeling of six thousand years of social and class superiority. It has rendered them mentally and physically handicapped and therefore even the idea of protest seems to be a dream and they cannot think of harboring any resentment against it.
In fact, the problem of untouchables is not a religious convention but it is a part of binary system that existed at the center ttagore social system rich — poor, male — female, east — west, elite and subaltern involving the politics of subjugation. Since they were forced to remove all dust and dirt of Hindus, they were rabindrannath as untouchables.
But the fact is that pollution lies in the work done by them and not in their existence. Tagore advances the view that even religion must survive on the grounds of logic but the religion that fails to protect the dignity of individual should ragindranath be encouraged. Reason and judgment should be the basis of religious ideology.
Chandalika, an untouchable and the daughter of a black magician Chandal chandalkka as a voice of the silenced and marginalized in history. She is a rebel who questions societal norms that relegated her to an existence of a lesser being, an untouchable. Tagore wrote this play when the caste system was in its peak position.
Through her dance movements Chandalika articulates her anger and love. Anger against a social status imposed upon her to which she finds herself shackled for life, and love, for a monk who respects and acknowledge her as a human being. It attempts to view how the play is a site where Tagore projects two people, opposed to each other due to their religion, caste, gender and sexuality to bring in a synthesis of disharmonies that lie between them, and thereby, prove a social point.
Chandalika is based on a Buddhist legend. Chandalika realizes her true identity: Only in the penultimate scene does she realize her guilt at making a person suffer against his wishes. When she sees him standing in front of her in txgore a pathetic state she repents and surrenders in shame, she falls at his feet begging his forgiveness.
In a battle of magical chants and spiritual power, Prakriti comes to a realization that love can never be forced or possessed. Ananda prays rabindranatb the Buddha to save himself from this shame and remorse consequently, Buddha breaks the magic spell and frees Ananda, he walks away from Chandalini as pure as he came. The play displays close interlinking of caste, gender and religion in subtle and significant ways.
During the s, Tagore was concerned with abnormal caste consciousness, both in Bengal and in India as a whole. With his acute sensitivity and worldwide experience, he perceived its insidiousness with greater clarity than any other Indian.
But for all his effort he could do little to remove it — least of all in the area of religious differences. In November he again took up the cudgels against untouchability: The Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar had changed nothing on the tagoree.
In he wrote Chandalika, a drama based on an old Buddhist legend.
The absence of the union thus rabindransth the presence of imperishable differences between dalits and non — dalits. Using drama as a medium Tagore tries to motivate Indians, to act against the practice of untouchability.
Thus drama as a social tool aims to motivate, inform, educate and arouse the consciousness of individuals in society with a view of making them rqbindranath of their responsibilities as members of society whose duty it is to take their destinies in their hands and make the world a better place. Therefore, from this study of Chandalika it has become obvious that the playwright can employ drama as an effective tool for social commentary. The artist chandzlika used this medium to highlight the value system of a society, for the purpose of enlightening, educating and motivating the people.
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